Subtitled screenings March-April 2020

We’ve produced brand-new SDH/captions for D/deaf audiences for three upcoming events in Scotland, for a total of 53 films(!)

19-22/03 Glasgow Short Film Festival 2020
Fri 27/03 Arrow Video Night: Why Don’t You Just Die!
25-26/04 Remakesploitation Fest

For the second year, we’ve worked with Glasgow Short Film Festival, this time expanding coverage to nine feature-length programmes of shorts, including the entirety of their Scotttish Competition and our own Girl in the Picture: The Youth Films of Nobuhiko Obayashi programme. The latter celebrates the early, experimental work of the House director and includes films subtitled in English for the first time. We’ve worked with translator Moe Shoji to produce SDH for these films, and they represent the start of a bigger project we’re very excited about – watch this space!

Find all the captioned films screening at GSFF20 here.

Why Don’t You Just Die! (Kirill Sokolov, 2020) is the first in our new, monthly screening series Arrow Video Night, in collaboration with Arrow Video. Arrow produces SDH for all their home releases, but we’ll guarantee them either way, since some of the programme will be sneak previews and descriptive subtitles may not be ready in time for our screenings. Why Don’t You Just Die! is a prime slice of Russian splatterpunk comedy, lots of fun and an advance screening ahead of its Blu-ray release in April.

More information and tickets here.

Remakesploitation Fest is our collaboration with Iain Robert Smith (King’s College London/Remakesploitation Film Club) and the result of a long, long infatuation with the weird world of Turkish fantastic cinema – particularly the era which featured countless unauthorised remakes of Hollywood films. Following our sold-out premiere screening of the 2K restoration of Turkish Star Wars (Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam) last year, we’re bringing a whole day of Turkish remakes to CCA Glasgow, all with exclusive, brand-new translations, screening for the first time in the world with English SDH. Thanks to King’s College London and Film Hub Scotland for making this possible!

More information and tickets here.


If you are interested in commissioning subtitles for a screening, event, festival or release, or would simply like to know how it works, get in touch: info@matchboxcineclub.com.

Turkish Remakesploitation

This April, we’ll be screening restored and newly-subtitled classics of Turkish fantastic cinema for the first time. Ahead of Remakesploitation Fest 2020, read our primer on the weirdest film scene in world cinema, originally published in 2011…

Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam AKA The Man Who Saved The World (Çetin Inanç, 1982) doesn’t make it too far past the endearingly handmade titles before it demonstrates the elements that gave it its better-known title, “Turkish Star Wars”. Edited into new Turkish scenes are newsreel clips of NASA rocket launches, instantly recognisable shots from Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (chopped from a print in a different aspect ratio from the rest of the Inanç‘s film – making the Death Star an odd shape), and identifiable footage from Sodom and Gomorrah (Robert Aldrich,1962) and The Seven Curses of Lodac (Bert I Gordon, 1962). The roguish leads, Cüneyt Arkin (Murat) and Aytekin Akkaya (Ali) are shown in space battle, their commitment to their performance overriding the viewer’s disbelief as projected footage from Star Wars cuts haphazardly between scenes behind them. Nobody in Lucas’ Rebellion ever had to deal with their spaceship appearing and disappearing around them, and even Luke Skywalker probably wouldn’t have dared flying backwards down the trench in the Death Star, even if it was oblong. But then daredevil Ali reckons the enemy are too sour-faced and he’d prefer “if some chicks with mini-skirts were coming”.

Cüneyt Arkin’s spaceship manifests from one frame to the next in “Turkish Star Wars”, Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam (Çetin Inanç, 1982)

While the provenance of the visual effects is immediately and jarringly obvious, the soundtrack is equally dubious. The music not sourced from library stock is bastardised from an impressive array of high-profile soundtracks, including John William’s score for Raiders of the Lost Ark (The Raiders March and Chase Suite), Giorgio Moroder’s disco cover of the Battlestar Galactica theme, Ennio Morricone’s theme for the TV mini-series Moses the Lawgiver (Gianfranco De Bosio & James H Hill, 1974), music from Planet of the Apes, Moonraker and Silent Running, and then Queen’s score for Flash Gordon – a film which also provides key sound effects. Even JS Bach’s Toccata gets a showing. Such audacious theft cannot help but overshadow the homemade costumes, mannered stunt work (particularly Arkin’s trademark trampolining) and lunatic storytelling that the film otherwise consists of, but Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam is still more entertaining than The Phantom Menace.

Such pithy comparisons have revived international interest in a peculiar sub-section of Turkish film that thrived domestically in the late 1970s and early 1980s, of which Turkish Star Wars is only one among many. There are now countless blogs and webpages dedicated to lists of bizarre and poorly-made foreign versions, some official, some not, of Hollywood films. Usually light on context and high on derision, these articles have nevertheless brought to light a whole spectacular genre that may be described as Turkish Remakesploitation.

Most of these films were made during a particularly tumultuous period for the Republic of Turkey that saw the country experience the third coup d’etat since its formation in 1923. The 1980 military coup followed coups in 1960 and 1971 and brought a temporary end to violence but also ongoing political instability that has continued to the present day, with the country engaged in a long struggle towards multi-party democracy. Contrary to some reports, there was no general ban on American films in Turkey, even during the period of the military coup (from September 1980 to November 1983) beyond the individual bans on Midnight Express (Alan Parker, 1978) and A Clockwork Orange (Stanley Kubrick, 1973). The more serious censorship affected domestic films and directors, most famously Yılmaz Güney who, in the middle of this period, orchestrated the production of Yol AKA The Way (Serif Gören, 1982) from a Turkish prison cell. One of the biggest movie stars in Turkey (of a rough and roguish type similar to Arkin), Güney was also one of the most politicised, first jailed in 1961 (for publishing an allegedly ‘communist’ novel) then again in 1972 and 1974. Escaping prison in 1981, he completed Yol in Switzerland and it went on to win the Palme D’Or at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival. Exiled in Paris, Güney died of cancer in 1984 and he is now internationally renowned as a key figure in modern Turkish cultural history.

Yılmaz Güney (middle) at the Cannes Film Festival, 1982

However, the kind of low budget oddities that decades later would become known as Turkish Jaws, Turkish Dirty Harry or Turkish Exorcist, among many others, belong in a world parallel to the politically and socially conscious filmmaking of the likes of Yılmaz Güney. Even filmmakers sometimes mentioned in the same breath as Güney took part in the Remakesploitation trend. Memduh Ün, who garnered early international notice for his film Kırık Çanaklar (The Broken Pots, 1960), also directed the Turkish James Bond rip off Altin Çocuk (Golden Boy, 1966) and, much later, Turkish Death Wish AKA Cellat (The Executioner, 1975). With the spotlight on the highly entertaining, low-budget escapism of Turkish Star Wars, it’s easy to overlook that Turkey, even in such adverse conditions, had no shortage of “respectable” films and, after a wilderness period from the early 1980s through into the 1990s, has resumed producing world-class films.

Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam is probably the most famous of the Turkish Remakesploitation films, by dint of having Star Wars as its template and because it so blatantly ripped off whole special effects shots and sequences. Truth be told, even though it cribs some broad ideas along with a bucket-load of special effects, it tells a distinctly different story than Star Wars and it is not even close to being the most thorough Rip-Off in this genre. Nor is Süpermen Dönüyor, even though Kunt Tulgar’s movie makes liberal use of stolen music cues and copyrighted characters. There are far more explicit offenders in this category, films that are practically shot-for-shot remakes of the originals. Crucially, none of them are authorised adaptations of the source material, distinguishing them from the standard and continuous back-and-forth nature of movie remaking across national borders.

Films belonging to the genre take a variety of forms, from those shot-for-shot remakes (Sevimli Frankeştayn AKA Turkish Young Frankenstein (Nejat Saydam, 1975)), to straight retellings adapted for a Turkish audience (Süpermen Dönüyor, Kunt Tulgar, 1979), to films that took elements of foreign films and incorporated them into ‘reimagined’ versions of the originals (Dünyayi Kurtaran Adam). All three types regularly feature in Top Ten Terrible Foreign Rip-Offs lists, their puny budgets, brazen appropriation and lunatic energy frequently compared ironically to their muscular Hollywood forebears. The common links between them are the international fame and success of their source material and a focus on any combination of action, sex, adventure and violence – the key constituents of any so-called B-movie and bread and butter for their contemporary domestic audience. The films were broad, easy to comprehend and entertaining to a fault – so no Turkish Chinatown, but Turkish Young Frankenstein was a no-brainer.

The films that can be described as part of the classic wave of Turkish Remakesploitation also belong to a larger genre of Turkish Fantastic Cinema. This term encompasses many kinds of genre films, from horror and science fiction to the hugely popular masked hero film. B-movies by any description and obscure to say the least, these films are not widely available even in Turkey, where the original prints have long since been sold off to television stations or simply disappeared entirely. Often the best sources for viewing them are VHS copies of pre-digital Turkish television broadcasts and/or German rental copies, ripped for the internet. Luckily and somewhat miraculously, a decade ago MTV Turkey began screening many of these films, previously believed to be lost altogether, in a weekly Fantastic Cinema slot. Otherwise, tiny independent companies like Onar Films, based in Greece, distributed DVD versions sourced from original prints. While these were lovingly packaged, carefully cleaned and prepared for release and much better quality than YouTube uploads, they were hampered by the extremely poor quality of the existing prints, which had never been high priorities for preservation or digital remastering.

“Turkish ET” waves goodbye in Badi (Zafer Par, 1983)

From a modern, western perspective, cataloguing and delineating these films is a nightmare, due to a number of factors. First and foremost, the lack of an international audience even at the time means that the films and filmmakers have very little status in the west. Awareness of them now is really due to some hard work by fans of the genre(s) and a whole lot of wry internet ‘appreciation’. Even now, the documentation and availability of these films is very limited, automatically granting canonical status to a handful of high-visibility Rip-Offs – Turkish Star Wars, Turkish Superman and Turkish ET (Badi, Zafer Par, 1983) among them. The films that are available, one way or another, often have sub-standard English subtitles (with no disrespect to the efforts made, for which we have to be very thankful) and most have no English subtitles at all. Additionally, there seems to be very little behind-the-scenes information available and attempts to frame these films in any kind of context are very rare. Bill Barounis of Onar Films produced a helpful Turkish Fantastic Cinema Guide and while there are surely more scholarly tomes on the history of Turkish cinema, Fantastic or otherwise, they are, by and large, written in Turkish and in any case not widely available.

Fortunately, as the films of particular interest here have benefited from the widest modern audience, it’s still possible to discuss them in context and to trace their origins somewhat. While the key period for these films is the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, their roots go much further back. Prior to World War II, the Turkish film industry was dominated by a handful of companies importing foreign product into the major cities of Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara. After 1948, when the municipal tax on exhibition was reduced from 75% to 25% (leaving the tax on imported films at 70%), there was an explosion in domestically produced Turkish cinema. By the mid 1960s, Turkish cinema had expanded rapidly to become one of the biggest film making economies in the world, centred around Yesilçam (literally ‘Green Pine’ and named for a street in Istanbul that housed many production companies), which became a by-word for Turkish cinema in the same sense Hollywood is for classic American film.

However, while there were over 1,000 cinemas in Turkey at the peak of this wave, Hollywood product was still limited to theatres in the major cities and the coasts, leaving the huge Anatolian population in the south at a disadvantage – which is to say, there was a huge demand for the kind of westernised product epitomised in the Western and Action genres which was not being fully catered for. Starting around 1962, the Turkish Western became a hugely popular genre with 15 films a year being produced at the peak of the genre’s popularity in the 1970s and an audience happy to consume up to three films a day. In this period, the power of the regional distributors was paramount as they could and would demand films to their own specification, according to the discriminations of their local audiences. Unfortunately, due in part to the decentralisation of the system (with hundreds of companies making films), the general tilt was towards private enterprise, meaning that profits from films were not directed back into future film production, but removed for private gain. This was essentially a cash-flow business, with the success of one film providing the budget for the next, and one that could not sustain itself under any adversity. Eventually, Yesilçam’s output became dominated by soft-core porn productions.The encroachment of television and VHS meant that cinema revenue took a dive in the late 1970s and 1980s, which, in combination with that still thirsty-for-action Southern audience, created the perfect environment for Turkish Remakesploitation to thrive, albeit briefly.

Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam speaks to the audacity of some Turkish filmmakers, but the copyright situation in Turkey then is extremely vague from a modern perspective and it seems clear that there was no pertinent law of any kind in Turkey at that point. Indeed, there was a similar approach taken to the recording of foreign songs, at least up until the 1990s. At any rate, most of the films to be made in this golden age were well under Hollywood’s radar, probably more so than even Tarzan Istanbul’da (which had attracted the attention of Hollywood lawyers), and catered to an audience that had very little access to Hollywood product. Up until this point, it was standard practice in Yesilcam to freely adapt English-language novels, scripts and movie serials. There had been numerous Turkish bootlegs of Hollywood properties like The Lone Ranger, Zorro and Flash Gordon as well as oddities like Tosun and Yosun, the Turkish Laurel and Hardy clones, and innumerable Turkish Westerns. The spirit of the classic Turkish Remakesploitation can be traced in some of those Westerns, in their enthusiastic appropriation of American Western tropes and types (in similar fashion to the Italian Spaghetti Westerns), and their giddy disregard for international copyright concerns.

Graham Humphreys’ poster for “Turkish Star Wars”

Una Pistola Per Ringo (Duccio Tessari, 1965), the now-classic Spaghetti Western, spawned many unauthorised spin-offs and unofficial sequels (as indeed it did in homeland of Italy). Similarly, Django (Sergio Corbucci, 1966) soon inspired the likes of Cango Olum Suvarisi (Django Rider Of Death, Remzi Conturk, 1967). Then came Çeko (Çetin Inanç, 1970), featuring a Turkish analogue of the Spaghetti Western anti-hero. Çeko opens with music stolen from Ennio Morricone’s score for The Good, The Bad and The Ugly (Sergio Leone, 1966) and goes on to utilise his Once Upon a Time in the West (Sergio Leone, 1968) score and Riz Ortolani’s music for Day Of Anger (Tonino Valerii, 1967). Even with the relatively low budget director Inanç had at his disposal, and the hasty production schedule – which would rapidly earn him the sobriquet “Regisör Jet”, the Jet Director – it was yet more economical to plagiarise pre-existing music. There were, of course, composers at work at the industry, but they would have cost too much, even in the form of the library music that they were most frequently employed to produce. With the materials at hand in the form of worn American prints and with impatient theatre owners on the phone, representing a waiting audience, directors like Inanç could churn out cheap copies quickly and to demand.

All of which begs the uncomfortable question of why filmmakers did not simply manufacture and distribute bootleg prints. The answer is in the question, and it is because these were filmmakers and not criminals. It seems clear that these films could not exist without a certain level of raw enthusiasm for the source material, the genres they represent and the filmmaking process itself. In any case, such blatant theft could easily be considered too likely to provoke the attention of litigious Hollywood studios that, after all, were still screening their product in the major cities, though they would not have a presence in the country as distributors until the 1990s. Equally probable is that the audience responded more enthusiastically to representations of these stories through a Turkish prism, which the filmmakers were only too eager to provide. It’s presumptuous and perhaps condescending to consider that the language barrier when screening original American films was an important element, but it likely would play a part. What is more than likely is that the significant delay between the initial American release and the widespread distribution of American films – even to the extent that they reached – provided a window ripe for exploitation.

Serdar Kebapçilar, “Turkish Rambo”, in Korkusuz (Çetin Inanç, 1986)

Inanç is the most prominent behind-the-scenes character in the story of Turkish Remakesploitation. Weaned on the same comic books and serials that inspired his contemporaries Lucas and Spielberg, his first notable work was writing the screenplay for Kilink Istanbul’da (Yilmaz Atadeniz, 1967), a rip-off of Italian comic strip Killing, itself a rip-off of another called Kriminal, which was again a rip-off of Diabolik – making Kilink Istanbul’da a kind of bastard cousin to Danger: Diabolik (Mario Bava, 1968). His first film as director, Çelik Bilek (1967), was a Rip-Off of another Italian comic series, this time Il Grande Blek. After Çeko, he churned out carbon copies of Bonnie and Clyde, Dirty Harry, Mad Max, Jaws, First Blood, Rocky and Rambo II, making him by far the most prolific of the Remakesploitation directors. Those films, however, are only a sampling of the 136 films he made before moving into television in the mid 1980s. His transition then was emblematic of the general refocusing of the industry around television and its revenues in the 1980s and 1990s.

The key to understanding the films of Turkish Remakesploitation is to see them in context, not as part of a bungling criminal enterprise, but as the work of inventive, cash-strapped pragmatists. They were opportunists, certainly, but no more than Roger Corman or, indeed, any other Hollywood producer. The films were, after all, made for and enjoyed by an audience that could be described as undiscerning, but is more properly seen as enthusiastic, extremely receptive and, ultimately, forgiving, if the entertainment was worth the price of admission. There are comparisons to be drawn between Turkish Remakesplotiation and some Blaxsploitation (eg “The Black Exorcist” – Abby, William Girdler, 1974) in the way that mainstream (white, American) content is recreated but transformed to reflect the appearance and cultural specificity of the ‘niche’ audience. They’re also a worthy example of the hijacking and détournement of the Hollywood juggernaut to produce films for local consumption and, to a very limited extent, local profit. It’s hardly Robin Hood and it doesn’t beat a genuinely creative original and non-derivative industry, but it’s a lot more attractive, culturally, than simply swallowing what America doles out wholesale.

But their worth is not merely academic. And it’s not simply found in their superficial comic value, or even in their oddball energy, strange logic and generally singular approach to genre filmmaking. It’s in the spirit they were made in, the sheer will to make films overwhelming the paucity of available resources. It’s about making films of a certain kind when logic perhaps should tell you that you are not able to and not being constrained by your material limitations – certainly not when there is the prospect of expanding your material wealth. Fundamentally, Turkish Remakesploitation survives because it’s still doing what it was created to do – entertaining, even if that enjoyment sometimes takes the shape of snarky, ill-informed criticism.

Comparing the intent of Çetin Inanç and his contemporaries to their Hollywood counterparts is perhaps the most instructive measure. The cultural influences they share, taking for granted the international success of American comics and movie serials of the 1930s and 40s, seem as important as their distinct national identities. How different would the original Indiana Jones and Star Wars trilogies look if they were made with a fraction of the budget, talent pool, shooting schedule and basic infrastructure that they found in Hollywood? And though posterity has not been kind to the films of Turkish Remakesploitation, the smiles they engender and the basic thrills they offer are undiminished. As Kunt Tulgar has said, “Action and adventure never die in our culture.”

Sean Welsh

Remakesploitation Fest 2020 takes place 25-26/04/2020 at Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow. Tickets available from our online shop here. Keep up-to-date with the Facebook event page here.


NB This article was originally published in 2011 at physicalimpossibility.com. Thanks to Gokay Gelgec of the Sinematik website and the sadly departed Bill Barounis of Onar Films for invaluable background information on these films and the culture they were made in. Wherever possible, we’ve referred to the best-presented and ‘official’ versions of these films available.

Best Vibrations

The dream of the ’90s is alive in psychotronic rave fable VIBRATIONS. We spoke to writer/director Mike Paseornek about his “strange little movie”

Five young people gather around a table, with musical equipment and random tech strewn on it, staring at a pair of metallic hands.
The cast of Vibrations, l-r: David Burke (Geek), Christina Applegate (Anamika), James Marshall (TJ), Scott Cohen (Simeon) and Faye Grant (Zina) (Courtesy of Cinépix)

“Emerging rock star, TJ CRAY, (JAMES MARSHALL), early twenties, has it all, incredible talent, a beautiful girlfriend (PAIGE TURCO), and now, a shot at the big time. He and his band are about to play the gig of their lives – an audition for the A&R man at Boston’s hottest night spot. And then…”

As President of Motion Picture Production for Lionsgate, Mike Paseornek has overseen a multi-million dollar blockbuster slate for decades – from the SAW series to the Hunger Games franchise to the John Wick films. The lauded films he’s “known for” on IMDb, like La La Land or American Psycho, have screeds and screeds of writing devoted to them. But the story of Vibrations, the 1995 “techno music love story” near the very beginning of his résumé, remains largely untold. “You never set out to make what someone would call a bad film or a limited film,” says the man with production credits on everything from Monster’s Ball to Mortdecai, “but they sometimes turn out that way.”

By all accounts, Vibrations is a wild film. It has the best virtues of a certain kind of cult movie – extraordinary, beyond-taste elements welded to a boilerplate morality tale; extremely period trappings that play to nostalgia as much as they provoke warm incredulity in fresher-faced audiences; earnest performances wrestling with a less-so script. It’s camp in the truest sense, of art that reaches beyond its grasp. And, whatever you may think of it, Vibrations is the one and only film that hinges on a thwarted garage band guitarist-cum-homeless-wino who replaces his amputated hands with robot ones, the better to become the toast of the techno rave underground.

Paseornek began his career as a writer, first as a humour columnist for Greenwich Village weekly The Villager then for television and, before too long, movies. All of Paseornek’s writing credits have a certain je ne sais quoi: Stitches; Meatballs III: Summer Job (“The ghost of a dead porn star comes to Earth to help a nerd with his sex life.”); Loose Ends AKA Screwball Academy; Snake Eater; Snake Eater II: The Drug Buster (“Together with a street-wise hustler from the ghetto they’re going after the TRAFFICKERS”); Downhill Willie AKA Ski Hard. He even wrote a TV drama about teen stress that’s still taught in American schools (Has Anybody Seen Phil?). But to date, he’s only directed one film, and Vibrations leapfrogs all of those (and most others) to the very top of the must-watch list.

Released in 1995 – straight from the “electronic underground,” as the posters have it – Vibrations is a rags-to-riches tale of Gen X rave redemption. It charts the rise of Cyberstorm, a techno musician who exclusively performs in a cybernetic bodysuit, and his romance with self-named t-shirt designer/scenester Anamika. Paseornek cast James Marshall (Twin Peaks, A Few Good Men) and Christina Applegate (Married With Children, Don’t Tell Mom The Babysitter’s Dead) at the peak of their young careers, gifting them leading roles dealing with meaty themes of alcoholism, disability and workplace misogny, in a ripped-from-the-headlines milieu of cutting edge technology and incipient EDM culture. The official synopsis:

Emerging rock star TJ Cray (JAMES MARSHALL) is en route to his first major concert when a confrontation with a carload of thugs turns violent. His car is crushed and his hands severed. Despondent, he becomes an alcoholic, and bums the streets of New York City. Cold and drunk, TJ breaks into an abandoned warehouse, and passes out. He’s awoken by pounding music, multi-coloured lights and swarms of young faces. He’s in the midst of an all-night dance party. Dazed, he’s rescued by Anamika (CHRISTINA APPLEGATE), a regular, who brings him to the walk-up apartment building she shares with three friends – a sculptor, a computer/electronics wiz, and a techno DJ. Gradually, he develops a romantic relationship with Anamika, overcomes his alcoholism, and with the help of her friends, develops programmable metal hands that allow him to play the keyboards once again. Shielding his identity in a sculptured metallic suit, he re-emerges on the scene as Cyberstorm, becoming a music legend.

The writer-director-producer of this “strange little movie,” is fully cognisant of its current status. “People have called it so-bad-that-it’s-good,” Paseornek reflects today, from his office in sunny Los Angeles, “but we actually set out to make something that was so weird that it would be good. We didn’t think of it as bad. We thought of it as different and strange and bizarre and weird, while we were doing it.” Vibrations was never intended to be a sober consideration of an emerging subculture, more “a fable which would take licence,” Paseornek concludes, “and we thought there is no better place to do that than in the rave world.”

Shot on location in New York City in 1993, the year CERN made the Web source code public domain, the year before Friends debuted, Paseornek’s film was truly riding the zeitgeist. By the time Vibrations was released, though, the ne plus ultra standard for ragtag groups of twentysomething New Yorkers had been irrevocably set, while Hackers, Johnny Mnemonic and The Net had instructed a whole generation on the credible depiction of computer science. On the other hand, Paseornek’s lens had caught the sense of a milieu, the New York rave underground, that had been practically evaporating in front of him. And Vibrations had at least one other, seemingly inexplicable USP, in the shape of a hand-me-down Stan Winston cyborg suit. But what – bearing in mind Daft Punk wouldn’t debut their famous robot personas publicly until 2001 – brought Paseornek to combine these elements? Where does a movie as singular as Vibrations actually come from? “The origin of this film,” confirms Paseornek, “was not typical.”

Vibrations was co-produced by John Dunning (1927-2011) a giant of Canadian film, who shepherded early films by David Cronenberg (Shivers, Rabid) and Ivan Reitman (Meatballs) alongside future cult classics like My Bloody Valentine, Happy Birthday to Me and Spacehunter: Adventures in the Forbidden Zone. According to Paseornek, Dunning was a showman. “Not personally – he was a behind the scenes guy – but he liked showman-style projects that had a gimmick to them. He was a good friend.”

It was Dunning who had given Paseornek his start in motion pictures, hiring him, alongside his writing partner Michel Choquette, directly from National Lampoon. The two re-wrote Stitches for Dunning, then developed a sequel to Meatballs before their partnership broke up. Then a chance meeting with Dunning in a New York street led to his flying Paseornek solo to Canada and putting him on the Cinépix payroll. “John and I had a creative affinity for one another,” Paseornek has explained. “Everyone would sit around and come up with ideas. And that’s the way we made movies.”

In 1986, Dunning had made a film for Fox called The Vindicator, originally titled The Frankenstein Factor and a modern-day retelling of the classic horror story. “A very small movie,” says Paseornek, “but there was a very big-time special effects make up person on that movie, named Stan Winston.” Winston was Oscar-nominated for Heartbeeps, renowned for his work with Rob Bottin on The Thing, but had become truly iconic through his collaborations with James Cameron on The Terminator and Aliens. Dunning still had the suit Winston had designed for The Vindicator (“It had been gathering dust in my basement for years,” he later wrote), and ever since that film had failed to recoup its $4 million budget, he’d been keen to recycle it. “The suit probably cost more than the whole movie did,” says Paseornek, “so we were talking about, what could we do with this suit? And techno music was really beginning to get hot in the early ’90s.”

Based now in Los Angeles, sojourns in Canada aside, Paseornek lived in New York for over 30 years. “I think the first rave in New York was probably 1991,” he recalls. “All these little raves were popping up. I would get these notices of a rave in a warehouse and they always had interesting graphics and I thought, ‘This is an interesting world.'” Indeed, though rave culture had been bubbling under in the US for a few years while it exploded in the UK, the first of Frankie Bones’ landmark Storm Raves took place in Brooklyn on May 11th, 1991.

Described by Michaelangelo Matos, author of The Underground Is Massive: How Electronic Dance Music Conquered America, “Rave was America’s last great outlaw musical subculture, created by kids, for kids, designed to be impenetrable to adults.” And its proliferation across the US, according to Matos, was inextricably linked with the rise of the internet, first with message boards and mailing lists, later with new electronic audio formats like RealAudio and mp3. In May 1992, ageing alt-culture godhead Timothy Leary told ABC News, “What was once psychedelic is now cybernetic.” In the same segment, which went “undercover” in LA’s rave scene, described techno as “a kind of heavy metal disco.” All of which is to say it’s not a huge leap to get from rave to “robot DJ”.

“So John and I got together,” Paseornek recalls, “We were trying to talk about what we could do, you know, that would reflect this generation of people and new music and the suit. And, we thought, ‘Well, in this world, a DJ could programme his hands just like you programme a keyboard. What would the story be about that?’ And we came up with this crazy story because we had a suit and we had a setting we wanted to put it in, which was the rave world, where we thought it would really fit and what would it be like if a guy turned up with no hands in this world and they had to create hands for him, what could he do if he was a musician? Well, he could play techno music and he could be a DJ at raves.”

Cyberstorm (James Marshall) in action (Courtesy of Cinépix)

“And, so, it really did come together that way.” Next, they needed to enhance their Stan suit with those programmeable hands, which came courtesy of a veteran of RoboCop, eager to work on a Winston. Meanwhile, Vibrations co-producer and music supervisor Dan Lieberstein (later of Sex and the City fame) began searching for representative acts (“We really took the music seriously,” says Paseornek), ultimately providing an entrée to all the musicians who would cameo in the film – Utah Saints (whose performance was cut for the US release), Moses on Acid (a popular group otherwise largely undocumented), Fierce Ruling Diva et al. (The score – including Simeon’s infamous techno demonstration and all of TJ’s music, from his garage band to his Cyberstorm sets – was written and performed by Bob Christianson). Perhaps most importantly, though, Paseornek had to flesh out his script with some lived experience.

“Researching the movie,” says the filmmaker, “The thing that struck me was that the whole rave world was like a fable. I mean, people were in these heightened worlds, there was a vibe going on.” Paseornek’s wife, an artist, suggested they should “go and see what these things are,” and they began to attend warehouse raves, stepping together “into this whole other world.” At one party, Paseornek noted a group of people standing between two enormous speakers, just to feel the vibrations through their bodies. “I thought, ‘Wow, this is a whole new world – these people are in their own world.’ It was just a different universe that was being created, and we tried to reflect that when we did the movie, recreate as much as was possible, which made for a very weird film.”

(l-r) Alex Christensen (U96), Brian ‘Fast’ Leiser (Moses on Acid), Christina Applegate (Anamika), Bubba (Moses on Acid), James Marshall (TJ/Cyberstorm), Christos ‘Stos’ DeVaris (Moses on Acid), Jeff Brown (Fierce Ruling Diva), Jeroen Flamman (Fierce Ruling Diva) (Courtesy of Cinépix)

“Yes, part of it was the ecstasy and all that, but most of it, to me, was that it was like a lifestyle in the rave world. To the point where there would be sometimes an adventure to get to a rave – they would send you to one place and they’ll send you to another place and yet everyone would find these raves.” For the record, Paseornek confirms, “I never liked ecstasy. It wasn’t my thing, but it wasn’t like I was going [there] to do drugs. Nothing against anyone who did, but I am a martini guy. To me, it was one of the downfalls of the rave scene that the drugs kind of took over and it got a really bad reputation. Most of the people involved with raves really had big hearts and just want to feel something different.”

“I even met with Moby,” Paseornek says, “although I’m sure Moby will never remember this. Moby was just starting to do raves around the world and, through a mutual friend, I sat down with him and he told me about the rave world.” Alas, during filming, Moby was on tour and unavailable. “I tried to convince him. I have a feeling if he was around, he would have stopped in and done something.” Indeed, Moby’s music features heavily in a pre-production promotional video made by Cinépix, which also features a specially-shot Cyberstorm performance, with an alternative cast (and, sadly, the only appearance of his unnamed cyborg backing band).

A pre-production promo for “Cyberstorm” (Courtesy of Cinépix)

Script complete, they set about casting the film which was still titled, and would be all throughout production, Cyberstorm. Christina Applegate was 22 and best known for portraying Kelly Bundy on the long-running sitcom Married With Children. Paseornek knew that Applegate was getting offered plenty of mainstream Hollywood, coming-of-age projects but was eager to try something different (or, as the New York Post claimed, in July ’93, “looking to shed her TV bimbo image”), so he passed her manager the script. Applegate liked the project too, but stipulated she would only sign on if James Marshall was hired for the lead. In his memoir, Dunning explained, “He wasn’t our first choice, but we agreed. And he did, after all, have the reputation of being a hot up-and-comer as a result of his work on the hit Twin Peaks TV series.”

First Watergate, now Christina Applegate. The blond star from “Married With Children” passed up highly visible comedic roles in “Wayne’s World 2” and “The Coneheads” and opted instead for a more serious role in the low-budget film “Cyberstorm”. Applegate was overheard saying at Ciccio & Tony’s that she’s going to dye her hair black for the part of the woman who takes in a rocker who loses the use of his hands before the “big concert”. Don’t worry, he’s later outfitted with a computerized suit and “programmeable hands.”

New York Daily News, Tuesday, July 6, 1993
James Marshall and Christina Applegate (Courtesy of Cinépix)

Happily, though, Paseornek wanted someone “Where you sort of go, ‘Well, there’s kind of something more going on in that guy’s head.'” Marshall had played brooding biker James Hurley on both series of Twin Peaks, which had only recently been a true cultural phenomenon. “I thought it would be good to have someone who wouldn’t come off as corny intrinsically… James is a heavy dude.” Luckily, Marshall liked the script and wanted to do it, and so Paseornek had his star-crossed lovers. Ultimately, though, Marshall would share credit for some of Vibrations most memorable moments. “For the more adventurous dancing, there was a dancer, her name was Zu Zu,” Paseornek recalls. “James was in there for a lot of it, but then we enhanced it.”

Paseornek insists that you can see Vibrations in “a whole different way” if you do picture it as a fable, and “not like somebody trying to show life as it really is,” but, even so, there’s a genuine verisimilitude in the production. “If you stepped back in 1991, into the rave world,” Paseornek suggests, “the characters and the environment itself was a lot like that.” Vibrations was filmed in July 1993 (“One of the hottest summers I could ever remember in New York”), over a month of six-day weeks. It was Cinépix’ first production in the city, and, according to Dunning, “We were pumped.” The production recruited rave organisers to decorate the same Brooklyn warehouses where their parties were held, and hired their regular lighting crews.

Embed from Getty Images Christina Applegate, Bubba (Moses on Acid) & Neville Wells at Mr Fuji’s Tropicana, New York, 1993.

There was no air-conditioning in the warehouses they shot in, and sold-out crowds were conjured via radio annoucements of DJ appearances. The climactic scenes were shot at New York’s Webster Hall, where contemporaneous press noted the dancing extras didn’t get paid. (“On the contrary,” reported The New York Post, “The club charged their customary $15 admission fee.”). If there was any ill will directed towards the production, though, it certainly wasn’t aimed at the stars. According to Lieberstein, “While we were filming on the streets of Brooklyn, the local residents would crowd around calling’s Christina’s name, throwing flowers and sending small gifts over to her through the production assistants. No matter where we shot, it was impossible to feel threatened in the midst of so much genuine affection.”

TJ Cray (James Marshall) on the skids in Vibrations (Courtesy of Cinépix)

“The difference between shooting John Wick in New York and shooting Vibrations, if you watch John Wick and you see Times Square or Chinatown, those are all our people. All our cars, all our rain. All our everything. On Vibrations, I was stealing shots.” Meaning that while they might have had a permit to grab a shot or two in, say, Times Square, Paseornek would surreptitiously sneak his actors in front of the cameras. “The reason that a real person put a dollar in James Marshall’s cup when he is sitting on the ground there is because there were real people walking through the shot, along with our people, so, they felt sorry for him. He actually made some money during the scene.” (The Vibrations press kit assures us that “proceeds went towards the purchase of sandwiches for some of the neighbourhood’s homeless”)

But the producers weren’t focused on the bottom line. In John Dunning’s memoir, You’re Not Dead Until You’re Forgotten, Paseornek recalled his perfectionist friend and mentor forcing him to re-shoot a scene. Dunning had noticed you could see under the neck of the Cyberstorm costume from one angle. “And I thought, ‘No-one but John Dunning is ever going to notice that.’ But it drove him crazy. He was ready to pay for it out of his own pocket to re-shoot something only he would see.”

Cyberstorm (James Marshall) in action (Courtesy of Cinépix)

Sadly, Vibrations box office performance didn’t reward its creators’ attention to detail. Dunning had an idea to emulate the major studios’ saturation strategy – where they book a film into thousands of movie theatres simultaneously and spend millions marketing it nationally – but instead focus on just one area of the US. “The people in that region wouldn’t know that it wasn’t a national release because we would match the majors in media exposure.”

However, Dunning would’ve had to convince US partners on the plan, and, as he later reflected, “it wasn’t my forte”. Instead, his experiment took place in one region of Canada and, unfortunately, “It didn’t work. Quebec wasn’t ready for a film about raves, so off it went to video.” Vibrations was quietly released to US video rental in late August, 1995. The sales campaign aimed at video store managers boldly asserted the film had, “trailered theatrically with The Crow, generating powerful consumer impressions.”

Vibrations was not widely reviewed (Entertainment Weekly said the film “deserves a long video life as the most unintentionally funny craze comedy since Roller Boogie“), though the dry synopsis accompanying the little press coverage it did receive goes a way to explaining its lack of impact. Under the banner of “Romance”, the Baltimore Sun’s listing was typical: “A dance-club manager befriends and then falls in love with an aspiring musician who has become an alcoholic after an attack that left him without the use of his hands.” No Utah Saints, no Vindicator suit, no programmeable hands – no suggestion at all of an irrepressible, rave-dancing cyborg DJ.

There’s a sense too, strengthened by a glance at a selection of abandoned poster concepts (see above), that they struggled figuring out how to sell the film – as a harrowing tale of amputation and alcoholism, as a Gen X drama in the mould of Reality Bites or as some kind of vague Terminator derivative? But perhaps Vibrations simply missed its moment. “Sometimes films are discovered the day they open,” offers Paseornek, “and sometimes they are discovered later.”

The Baltimore Sun, Friday 18th Aug 1995 (Page 73)

“I was once standing in line with Mary Harron, after we’d made American Psycho…and there were these people who had just discovered it. We were standing waiting to buy our food and this one woman says to this other woman, ‘Have you ever seen that film American Psycho? What kind of disgusting people would make that film?’ That is what you’re vulnerable to, period, in our business is, you know, not everybody is going to love everything you do. So I’m always nervous when anything comes out that I’ve been involved with.”

Vibrations had been a co-production between Paseornek’s Tanglewood Films and Dunning’s Cinépix. In the few years that followed, Paseornek established the US distribution arm of Cinépix in New York City. Then, when Lionsgate took over Cinépix/CFP in 1997, just two years after Vibrations debuted, Paseornek became president of the company’s film arm, overseeing development and production.

So after all this time, how does Paseornek feel about Vibrations? “I will say this, if I had to do it over again, at this point, I would probably have looked at the motivation more for why things happen, like why did those guys attack him. Back then, it was good enough to have bad guys just be bad guys often, you know? Today, we want to know why they are bad guys. So, I probably would put a lot more thought into that, but, again, we thought of it as a fable.”

One of Vibrations’ many iconic scenes

“I think what it might have helped inform me on as a producer is not to feel limited by money and, you know, the whole idea of putting the movie together in the city with no money and just not hearing the word no.” And, of course, Vibrations whole budget wouldn’t cover the squib bill on any given John Wick production. “I would probably not have gone for some of the effects I went for with no money, because sometimes they work and sometimes they don’t, that’s the thing. And you don’t have any room for error on a low-budget film.” But, even so, Paseornek refuses to make excuses for his debut film, claiming that, even with with same budget, he’d do things differently if he made it now. Producing Vibrations helped Paseornek figure out “how to deal with everything that you deal with in a movie, without much, if any, resources. It was a great experience in that way.”

A quarter of a century later, with 86 production credits to his name, Paseornek is assured about his record. “I’ve been involved with films that have had terrible reviews and I’ve been involved with films that have had great reviews and not been that successful. Our company, we’ve had 130 Oscar nominations. I’ve seen the best of it and I’ve seen the worst of it and I’ve seen the most bizarre of it and I’m proud of everything we’ve ever done.” And so, while it’s a little scary for his film to resurface these days (“because you never know how it’s going to be received”), he’s still fond of it. “It’s a strange little movie,” says Paseornek. “I hope that people like it.”

Sean Welsh (with very special thanks to Mike Paseornek, Greg Dunning and Cinépix)

Vibrations is currently unavailable in the UK, streaming or otherwise, but you can purchase a Region 1 DVD here.

John Dunning’s memoir, You’re Not Dead Until You’re Forgotten, can be purchased directly from Cinépix here.


One more tune… (Galleries courtesy of Cinépix)

A deleted scene from Vibrations, featuring Utah Saints’ “special appearance”
A vintage Moses On Acid set (1994)
A vintage Moses On Acid interview (1994)
“The World of the Rave”, ABC News 20/20 Special, January 25th, 1997
James Marshall accepts a Schlockademy Award for Vibrations, from the Philadelphia Psychotronic Film Society

Subtitled screenings Jan-Feb 2020

We’ve produced brand-new SDH/captions for D/deaf audiences for a couple of upcoming screenings in Scotland.

Friday 31/01 Sing and fight! Queer film night (Glasgow)
Sunday 02/02 Leithers Sunday Matinee

Very different events, but both a pleasure to work on. One is a showcase of the absurd, political and queer musical films of John Greyson, the other a new restoration of a 1988 documentary on Leith and its changing socio-economic landscape.

Sing and Fight! is an event showcasing the absurd, political and queer musical films of John Greyson. Produced by Edinburgh Artists’ Moving Image Festival, in collaboration with HIV Scotland and Pollyanna queer cabaret, it takes place at Glasgow’s The Deep End. Alongside rarely shown musical short films from the 1980s, the event centres on clips from Zero Patience (John Greyson, 1993). Greyson’s film uses the unlikely form of song and dance to tell the story of the unfairly stigmatised, supposed ‘patient zero’ of the AIDS epidemic in North America.

Leithers (Alistair Scott, 1988) documents the people who lived and worked in Leith during the ’80s and examines the changing socio-economic landscape of Leith at that time. The film screening will be introduced by film-maker Alistair Scott, Associate Professor of Film & TV at Edinburgh Napier University. The screening will also be accompanied by a short compilation of archive footage of Leith from the National Library of Scotland’s Moving Image Archive and will be followed by a short panel discussion about Leith’s past, present and future.

Thanks to Edinburgh Artists’ Moving Image Festival – EAMIF and LeithLate for the opportunity to work on these, and more importantly for making them accessible to D/deaf audiences!


If you are interested in commissioning subtitles for a screening, event, festival or release, or would simply like to know how it works, get in touch: info@matchboxcineclub.com.

Matchbox Cineclub vs Berlin

We’re hosting a Slumber Party Massacre at Final Girls Berlin Film Festival 2020

Andree Honore, Debra De Liso and Michelle Michaels in The Slumber Party Massacre (Amy Holden Jones, 1982)

We’re delighted to be debuting in Berlin with a special event at the Final Girls Berlin Film Festival 2020! FGBFF showcases horror cinema that’s directed, written, or produced by women and non-binary filmmakers. They’re committed to creating space for female voices and visions, whether monstrous, heroic or some messy combination of the two, in the horror genre. Late last year, we hosted the Best of Final Girls Berlin 2019, showcasing some of the incredible directed-by-women horror shorts featured at last year’s festival.

In the Berlin 2020 programme, we’ll be screening the triple F-Rated ’80s slasher The Slumber Party Massacre (Amy Holden Jones, 1982) alongside Riot grrrl B-movie short I Was A Teenage Serial Killer (Sarah Jacobson, 1993) at City Kino Wedding on Saturday, 8th February 2020.

Slumber Party Massacre | When Trish (Michele Michaels) decides to invite her high school basketball teammates over for a slumber party, she has no idea the night is going to end with an unexpected guest crashing the party – an escaped power drill-wielding killer. Directed by Amy Holden Jones and written by Rita Mae Brown, Slumber Party Massacre was originally penned by Brown as a parody of the slasher genre. Rehashed by producers into a ‘serious’ slasher, Slumber Party Massacre retains its original intentions as a celebration and acknowledgement of the ridiculousness of the genre, offering up an inversion of the male gaze and lots of murders by power tools.

Before Slumber Party Massacre, Final Girls are screening Sarah Jacobson’s classic short I Was A Teenage Serial Killer (1993), AGFA’s recent preservation of which we debuted in Scotland at Weird Weekend 2019.

I Was A Teenage Serial Killer | Sarah Jacobson’s punk-spirited DIY films from the 1990s combine B-movie aesthetics and riot grrrl feminism, standing as a testament to the vision, determination, and raw talent of the Queen of Underground Cinema. I Was A Teenage Serial Killer, a 27-minute short, is Slacker meets Valerie Solanas, as a 19-year-old woman responds to catcalls, condescension, and bad sex the only way she knows how: murder.

The Slumber Party Massacre screens at City Kino Wedding, Berlin, on Saturday 8th February, 2020. Tickets are on sale here.

View the full Final Girls Berlin Film Festival programme here.

Keep up-to-date with the Facebook event page here.

KeanuCon, Captions and Co-screenings

Matchbox Cineclub’s 2019 in pictures

In 2019, we produced three festivals (one of which gained international viral fame), screened 43 feature-length films and 31 short films, hosted 13 guests, 4 drag performers, 2 live bands, co-programmed 14 collaborative screenings, embraced the sliding scale ticketing system, started open-captioning all our screenings, launched a subtitling arm providing HOH subtitles for several festivals and other exhibitors and co-ordinated a month-long season of films across Glasgow and Scotland. Through it all, we had the best audiences and an amazing support network of colleagues, collaborators and peers. Particularly, the support and enthusiasm from our friends at Film Hub Scotland set us up to deliver what is beyond a doubt our busiest programme yet. Here’s our ridiculous year in pictures, month-by-month.

Cage-a-rama 2: Cage Uncaged | We started the year with our second annual Nicolas Cage film festival, opening with Mandy and a Q&A with Cheddar Goblin creators Casper Kelly and Shane Morton. Mom & Dad director Brian Taylor joined us via Skype on Saturday evening and we closed the weekend with the UK premiere of the truly special Between Worlds, a still-unsung and underrated entry in the Cage canon. Despite being described in some quarters as “the new The Room“, it was thoroughly enjoyable and a good time was had by all.

Phones aloft at Auld Lang Vine #RIPVine (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

Auld Lang Vine #RIPVine | In mourning of everyone’s favourite six-second video platform, we hosted a fitting funeral, including drag homage by Puke, live music by Joyce Delaney and 500+ Vines curated by Pilot Light TV Festival. This was an event of firsts, including our first use of the sliding scale ticket price and our first ever spontaneous modern-day lighter waving. Part of the #BFIComedy season.

Director Jaqueline Wright introduces Two Weirds Is Too Weird (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

Two Weirds Is Too Weird @GSFF19 | In March, we joined forces with Glasgow Short Film Festival to curate a night of short films made by Alice Lowe & Jacqueline Wright under the Jackal Films banner, featuring feline erotica, courtly necrophilia and bird women. Jacqueline, who’s now based in the US, very kindly recorded us a special introduction for the event. This was also our first collaboration with fantastic photographer Ingrid Mur, who documented our events for the rest of 2019.

Shogun Assassin with Venom Mob Film Club | This was Venom Mob Film Club’s first screening, and the first of our 2019 co-screenings supported by Film Hub Scotland. Johnny and Chuck programmed one of our favourites and served it up with a special menu of vegan ramen. Venom Mob have since done a bunch more screenings themselves, and they’ve all been great.

Photo by Ingrid Mur

KeanuCon | Megan: Viral fame unexpectantly struck us this year as the internet caught wind of the world’s first Keanu Reeves film festival (less than a week before the already sold-out festival), yet we remain humble.

Sean: (Broke).

Megan: The festival was wyld regardless of the coverage, we had contributions from Alex Winter, Bill & Ted writer Ed Solomon, Man of Tai Chi star Tiger Chen, authors Kitty Curran & Karissa Zageris and My Own Private Idaho aficianado Claire Biddles. The weekened climaxed with a live performance from Wyld Stallyns, a Glasgow supergroup who absolutely nailed it. And, of course, we had lots of Keanu films, 11 in total, including his first appearance on film, in a National Film Board of Canada short. The weekend was full of Keanu love and great energy from the audience, we can’t wait to do it again in 2020!

Backseat Bingo’s Casci Ritchie (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

Under the Cherry Moon with Backseat Bingo | Our next team-up of the year was with the brilliant Backseat Bingo, returning from a long absence. It was only fitting that programmer Casci Ritchie, who is also an academic expert on His Royal Badness, present this lesser known Prince classic on his birthday. Casci introduced the film with an illustrated talk on Prince’s fashion, from erotic sportswear to the classic trench coat.

Poster illustration by Vero Navarro

Cage-a-rama 3D @ EIFF | What could be better than Cage? Cage in 3D! Senior programmer Niall Grieg Fulton invited us to collaborate on this special event at this year’s Edinburgh International Film Festival. After Cage-a-rama 2 (and our 2018 pop-up, The World’s Greatest 3D Film Club at Nice N Sleazy), Cage-a-rama 3D was the logical next step. EIFF’s team sourced beautiful 3D prints and footed the bill for an incredible top-of-the-range 3D system (the glasses need re-charged after every screening). Drive Angry and Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance have never looked better – and we got to commission another incredible illustration from Vero Navarro!

Der Fan with Sad Girl Cinema | As part of BFI’s Film Feels: Obsession season, we co-programmed ’80s thirsty cult slasher Der Fan, along with a topical panel on obsession, thirst and fandom, featuring Bethany Rose Lamont (Sad Girl Cinema), Liz Murphy (artist), Jamie Dunn (The Skinny) and chaired by Claire Biddles (Sad Girl Cinema).

#SubtitledCinema | This was the year we committed to switching on the subtitles for every screening we do. We believe in accessibility and inclusion and though there’s lots of things we can’t do because we don’t have the budget or the time (there’s still just the two of us running Matchox), we realised if we could do it, we should. The other side of the coin is that since we aim to screen films that you can’t see elsewhere and often it’s the first, the first in a very long time, or somehow the only time you’ll be able to see these films, particularly on the big screen, we want to make sure as many people can see them as possible. Underpinning all that is the fact that we’re also professional subtitlers, with over a decade experience in subtitling for D/deaf audiences, so this year we put two and two together and started a subtitling arm to Matchbox. Since we started, alongside our own programming, we’ve produced subtitle files for festivals (GSFF, GFF, Take One Action, Document), film industry events (Film Hub Scotland’s EIFF Industry Days and This Way Up), new films (Super November, Her Century, Women Make Film) and creators (Ctrl Shift Face’s ongoing series of deepfake clips).

Frans Gender performing to Kenny Loggins’ Footloose. (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

Sing-along SAW with Pity Party Film Club | In 2018, we launched the Scalarama Scotland programme with Polyester in Odorama, a scratch ‘n’ sniff event that also featured live drag performers and a very special ring girl in Puke, who, in lieu of on-screen prompts, let everyone know when to rub ‘n’ snort the special Odorama cards. We wanted to top it this year, so we teamed up with our pals Pity Party Film Club to come up with Sing-along SAW – a screening of the classic modern horror, interpolated with live drag acts inspired by key scenes. Highlights included Billy circling the audience on a People Make Glasgow bike and Frans Gender’s out-on-a-limb rendition of Kenny Loggins’ Footloose.

Director Tom Schiller introduces Nothing Lasts Forever, complete with player piano and lunartini.

Nothing Lasts Forever on 35mm | Tom Schiller’s Nothing Lasts Forever has been on our list since we started showing films. Never released on VHS, DVD, VOD or streaming, since its scarce first screenings, it’s only been seen via TV broadcast once in a blue moon (not in the UK since Alex Cox introduced it on Moviedrome in 1994). When we realised Park Circus could authorise a 35mm screening, we knew we had to make it happen, and it was the perfect opening film for Weird Weekend. And though it was challenging (the only way to see the theatrical cut, and therefore prepare, is with the 35mm print), we even figured out how to screen it with subtitles.

Matchbox Maw Linda Dougherty and programmer Sean Welsh (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

Weird Weekend | One of our proudest moments this year, our second annual cult film festival was the first festival we’ve done with the sliding scale ticketing scheme, the first fully subtitled and we also had a 50/50 F-rated programme, meaning half the films were directed by women. Besides all of that, Weird Weekend represents our core programming: outcasts, orphans and outliers – the oddball and often lost classics that deserve to be better seen. Programming, producing, promoting and delivering it this year was thrilling and challenging and exhausting and rewarding. Highlights for us were hosting deepfake auteur Ctrl Shift Face (who came to take part in our Weird World of Deepfakes panel, debuted a brand-new clip and provided his back catalogue for a feature-length retrospective); screening Věra Chytilová’s rarely-seen Vlci Bouda; bringing the mighty Vibrations to a Glasgow audience; and, of course, hosting a Skype Q&A with the one and only Joe Dante, who also allowed us to screen the workprint of The ‘Burbs, complete with alternative ending, extended and missing scenes and even more Morricone needle drops. Subtitling/captioning most of the programme from scratch was another proud moment, if exhausting, and we can’t wait to do it all bigger and better again in 2020.

Photo by Ingrid Mur

Scalarama 2019 | This year, we took a new approach to coordinating the monthly Scalarama meetings leading up to the full DIY season in September. We wanted to make the meetings more practically useful for people looking to start screening films, as well as for people with a little more experience. Every month from March, we invited two guest speakers to present on different aspects of putting on films, and then make an opportunity for attendees to ask questions and share their own perspectives. When our programme was launched in August, we had our busiest ever programme in Glasgow, as well as more and more activity in Edinburgh, the Highlands and Islands and all across Scotland.

Toshio Matsumoto’s Atman (1975)

Kaleidoscopic Realms | Megan: This was probably my favourite screening of the year, if I’m allowed to say that? Our programme was a mix of Toshio Matsumoto and Nobuhiro Aihara shorts sourced from the Post War Japan Moving Image Archive and two shorts by Naoto Yamakawa, supplied us to by the director. This was a mini-time capsule of experimental shorts of the ’70s & ’80s, and just the beginning of our experimental Japanese programming, which you’ll see more of in 2020.

Lydia Honeybone talks to Freddy McConnell after Seahorse (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

Seahorse with Freddy McConnell | Our first co-screening with Queer Classics brought Jeanie Finlay’s then brand-new documentary Seahorse to Glasgow. Seahorse intimately explores Freddy McConnell’s pregnancy journey as a trans man. Freddy even came along to chat with the audience about his experiences, and got confused when asked about his ‘wean’!

Gregg Araki introduces our screening, from an LA burger joint

Gregg Araki’s Teen Apocalypse Trilogy with Diet Soda Cineclub | For the first time ever, we didn’t attend our own event, a co-screening triple bill of Totally Fucked Up, The Doom Generation and Nowhere. We had been invited to curate a panel on #SubtitledCinema at one of Independent Cinema Office’s regular Screening Days events, so while we prepared well (including producing all-new subtitles for all three films), we had to be at Nottingham’s Broadway Cinema when the event started in Glasgow. We left delivery of the event in the very capable hands of our co-programmer, Sarah Nisbet of Diet Soda Cineclub. Gregg Araki’s specially recorded introduction (filmed during a burger joint reunion with the cast of Kaboom) arrived practically at the last second, but it was worth the wait.

Best of Final Girls Berlin | Ain’t no horror like women-made horror, and Final Girls Berlin have the best of it. We brought the frights, anxiety and terror of FGBFF right to Glasgow with a showcase of the best short horror films from their festival, made by women from around the world. And if you liked this team-up, keep an eye out for their festival programme announcement in January 2020 😉

Sgàire Wood’s introduction to City of Lost Souls (Photo by Ingrid Mur)

City of Lost Souls with Sgàire Wood | As part of BFI Musicals season, we brought a bit more of Berlin to Glasgow via ’80s trans punk musical City of Lost Souls. As if this film didn’t have it all already we also comissioned Sgàire Wood to produce a new performance to introduce the screening. We love this film, which challenges expected representation of queer communites, and is just a great odd-ball film all round.

Dial Code: Santa Claus & Secret Santa Party with Backseat Bingo | Our 43rd film of 2019, and our last, is another team up with Backseat Bingo. We wanted to celebrate Christmas with our audiences and our film exhibiton pals so what better than an ’80s action horror featuring a 9-year-old with a mullet and a super creepy Santa? Plus Secret Santa in aid of Refuweegee, and an additional surprise festive screening to finish!


Keep up to date with our 2020 events by signing up to our mailing list, here, or find our events on Facebook here.

Cage-a-rama 2020 takes place 3rd, 4th and 4th January 2020 at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow. Buy tickets here.

The Afternoon Show – Subtitling in films discussion

Janice Forsyth invited our producer Megan Mitchell to discusses the rise in popularity of subtitled films on BBC Radio Scotland’s Afternoon Show

Black and white Closed Captions logo: The letters "CC" encased in a television screen shape

Megan was invited on BBC Radio Scotland’s The Afternoon Show yesterday (16/12/2019) to discuss subtitling in films, with host Janice Forsyth and writer, academic and programmer Pasquale Iannone. If you’re in Britain, you can listen to the segment (for the next 29 days, at least) on the BBC’s website, here.

BBC doesn’t currently provide transcripts of its radio shows, so we’ve made one ourselves. Read it below, download a PDF here, or listen along with our subtitled clip.

Janice Forsyth: Now, until recently, subtitles and film and television were restricted to foreign language presentations, but now, well, I think a lot of us expect them as an option, thanks to streaming services like Netflix, Apple TV, BBC iPlayer, which offer so many shows fully captioned or subtitles. It’s great for world cinema and allows viewers to broaden their horizons from their living room but, apart from that, should we be captioning and subtitling everything anyway for reasons of inclusivity and have audiences become more adept at watching and reading at the same time? Well, here to help us explore how things are changing are two film buffs. In our Edinburgh studio, Afternoon Show regular and Italian cinema expert Pasquale Iannone. Ciao, Pasquale.

Pasquale Iannone: Ciao, Janice. Come va?

Janice: No bad.

Pasquale: No bad! “I’m awright.”

Janice: Awright, son! And with me in Glasgow is Megan Mitchell, producer with independent film exhibitor Matchbox Cineclub. She’s also co-founder – I love this – of the first film festivals anywhere in the world dedicated to Keanu Reeves… and Nicolas Cage. Megan, welcome.  

Megan Mitchell: Thank you for having me on.  

Janice: Great to have you here. So, tell us about Matchbox Cineclub. It’s such a brilliant title. What does it do?  

Megan: So we are basically, as you said, independent film exhibitors which means, really simply, that we screen films across the UK, even though we’re based predominantly in Glasgow. We screen everything, as you said, from classic Keanu Reeves and some cagey Cage all the way through to experimental Japanese cinema, world cinema and everything in between. We’re really interested in cult films and cult audiences.  

Janice: Wow, that’s interesting. Park Circus films did something like that you know, years ago, it was like Park Circus, they were based in Park Circus, they’re based in Glasgow, and became huge as distributors. Have they been a kind of shining example to you of what can be done?  

Megan: Yeah, and actually we’re really good pals with Park Circus. They’ve supplied quite a few of our titles, particularly some of the harder to get things. They’re a really good resource for us and any exhibitors across the UK, actually.

Janice: That’s great. All power to you. So, what about this, then, this phenomenon? I think many of us who do watch and maybe binge on box sets on the various streaming services, um… Well, I mean, let’s get out of the way the whole idea of actually sometimes it’s not to do with needing them because it’s a foreign language. For me, and sometimes other people, I mean, going way back to something like The Wire, I was so pleased when I discovered that there was a subtitling… there was access to subtitling so I could really understand the brilliant dialogue. Do you, Megan, see that there’s been a big increase in this, in proper, fully captioned, subtitled films?  

Megan: Absolutely and I think that younger generations particularly are now expecting that subtitles are on cinema we’re seeing it across not just streaming platforms, particularly Netflix and MUBI, who are captioning 100% of their content, or subtitling 100% of their content but particularly on social media and, you know, with the use of phones, we’ve got captioned content on video content there because no-one’s, you know, turning off their music or putting on their earphones to listen to something when they’re out and about, so I think with the increase of that, that’s leaking through into cinema and what audiences are expecting and I think, as you rightly said, access is a massive part of that as well, that there’s this crossover with people who, you know, aren’t particularly deaf or, you know, recognising themselves as such but finding subtitles massively helpful in understanding what’s happening on-screen.  

Janice: Yeah. Yeah. It is fascinating, isn’t it, Pasquale…

Pasquale: Yeah.

Janice: Because, obviously, you know, with Italian cinema, it’s no problem for you and presumably other languages as well, but it is terrific to have that option, but, for a long time, people, some people, would be a bit squeamish, “Oh, you know, “it’s a pain in the neck to have to read the subtitles as well.” Do you see a sea change now?  

Quad poster for The Raid. A SWAT police officer stands back to camera facing a tower block, with the film's name in giant letters

Pasquale: Yeah, I think so. I mean, there’s this idea that, you know, all non-English-language films are somehow art cinema, they’re art house films, they’re inaccessible, they’re complex, they’re…they’re cryptic, etc, and we know, obviously, that that’s not the case. I mean, granted, there are some of those titles but I mean there’s a huge variety of films of all different types of genres on all the streaming platforms, really. I mean, I was looking through Netflix, and there’s some incredible films. There’s an Indonesian action movie, The Raid, The Raid 1 & 2, incredible film, and of course it’s all, kind of, in Indonesian and it is not an arthouse film, the way we would think of it. And it’s this whole idea of subtitles versus dubbing, ’cause over here, obviously, we’re not really used to dubbing, as a culture, and it feels weird, I think, whereas some other cultures in Europe dubbing is very much the norm and… But, I think, yeah, I mean, it’s this idea of having the original.

Janice: Yeah.

Pasquale: And if it’s… If you have to have subtitles, then fine. I mean, there are actually some directors who say, “No, no, I’ve spent ages composing this image, “I don’t want text on it.”

Janice: Yes.

Pasquale: There are very few of those.  

Janice: I think most directors would surely prefer that than dubbing. I mean, I’m old enough to remember when we used to have foreign language export/import, or whatever it is, telly after school, so there would be Robinson Crusoe and Belle and Sebastian and it was it was all the dubbing but it was hilarious, because… Certainly, my brother and I just used to spend our time impersonating the very bad English-accented foreign voices. It was very, very funny. What about, Megan, mainstream cinemas? How many mainstream cinemas are regularly screening captioned or subtitled films?  

Megan: I mean, I actually took a look at us this morning before I came in, because usually we’re sitting in the mid-teens for subtitled screenings in multiplexes across Glasgow for a whole week. This week, it’s took a massive upswing because of Star Wars. There are 26 subtitled screenings across Glasgow this week. That’s a choice of six films including one screening of Frozen 2. However, if you do not require subtitles or aren’t looking for something that’s subtitled, you can go to Glasgow’s biggest multiplex today and see 60 screenings across 12 films, so I think there’s a massive, still a massive gap in terms of film screening exhibition access. In Glasgow, we’re seeing a massive increase in terms of independent exhibitors actually taking up the mantle of access and doing 100% or trying to achieve increased captions so earlier this year, Matchbox actually took the choice to dedicate 100% of our programming to captioning so that all of the films we screen, regardless of whether they’re English or foreign language have captions and subtitles so that anyone can come along and enjoy the films.  

Quad poster for Knife + Heart, woman with bleach blonde hair and leather jacket (Vanessa Paradis) stands in front of blurry billboard adverts

Janice: Is that an expensive business to do?  

Megan: Funnily enough, my colleague at Matchbox, Sean Welsh, he is a professional subtitler, so he subtitles and captions for MUBI and freelance so we can do it in-house but we’ve also seen an increase in funding, so that other organisations can reach out to us or other subtitlers and get that. We’re seeing that, on the production side, in terms of distributors for films, they’re still not supplying or producing subtitles so it means that even if people are wanting to screen their films accessibly, they just can’t.  

Janice: Yeah. It’s interesting this, isn’t it, Pasquale? I mean, also ’cause, you know, subtitled films you can totally imagine as an education resource for language students.  

Pasquale: Totally, yeah, and it’s an incredibly useful tool, as is music, of course, but, I mean, especially with film and it’s something that, you know, when I was at school, when I were a lad, you know, going back to the mid to late ’90s, I mean, you didn’t have that. I mean, you didn’t have the… You had the old… You still had old VHS and DVD was coming in, but it was nowhere near this amount of accessibility that you have now and so a tool, like this language learning in Netflix, is superb. I mean, it just allows viewers to watch foreign language shows with subtitles both in the original language and the English and you can pause it to really kind of absorb what they’ve just seen. Obviously, there’s some series and TV programmes that are better suited for this kind of thing. I mean, I was thinking… I was thinking of some series that are given some flack for their sound, the way that actors mumble, the way that actors… apparently, the Director General of the BBC said, “Muttering is something we should have a look at.”  

[Laughter]  

Pasquale: Back in 2013!

Janice: I love that. So W1A, isn’t it? Yeah! But there was an audibility project apparently in 2009, involving a 20,000 panel of viewers and listeners so this idea of sound and being able to catch every single thing but sometimes you don’t actually need to catch every single thing. It does really depend on the film, on the TV show. And how much is relayed through dialogue, and how much is relayed through the visual side.  

Quad poster for The Irishmen, three old men look in separate directions, away from the camera

Janice: Yeah. I’ve been thinking a lot about that recently because, Megan, I’ve been, you know, I was lucky enough to go to a BAFTA screening of The Irishman, so I saw it on the big screen. It wasn’t that big a screen, but it was a big screen And I was really glad I was able to do that. However, I have to admit, during it… I mean, I loved it, I really, really enjoyed it, but during it I was thinking, “Oh, I can’t quite catch what he said there,” and I was imagining that moment where I could pause and get the subtitles up. And I was just personifying exactly what Pasquale’s talking about. It was like, “Wait a minute, enjoy this master at work, “look at these visuals, just take in the whole thing, “maybe later…” Fortunately, it’s on Netflix, so I can look at the subtitles, but it’s interesting about how it maybe affects our experience of just sinking into the film.  

Megan: Yeah, but I think in terms of the availability of the subtitles and captions, particularly when you do go to the cinema you might be able to sink into the film a wee bit easier if subtitles aren’t on the screen, but if someone needs subtitles, they can’t view the film.

Janice: That’s it.

Pasquale: Yeah. I think there’s a really interesting conversation around that, particularly with art house cinemas and the idea that they are maybe a wee bit hesitant to put captions on their English language content, even though they screen predominantly foreign language, but they’re not hesitant to put out their wheelchair ramp.  

Janice: Yes.  

Megan: And it’s that type of same access that they’re providing, so I think that there’s a larger conversation around why we want subtitles on films, and it’s because of the idea that more people can go see these films and enjoy them.  

Janice: Don’t you think, Pasquale, that because there’s been a sea change in people like me enjoying, for the small screen anyway, the ability, to do with the mumbling or whatever, to be able to, you know, actually see, read what they’re saying, don’t you think, because of that, there should be less hesitancy amongst arthouse cinemas or wherever to roll out the subtitles and the captions for English language films?  

Pasquale: Yeah, I mean, I do think so. I mean, obviously it’s something that happens a lot in other countries but obviously it’s very different over here, so maybe there’s less of this pressure, perhaps, to put it on these screens, but it’s definitely something that happens in Italy in France, where you have cinemas playing all the big hitters, all the big films in dubbed versions, but also with, in original versions as well.  

Janice: Yeah. Certainly, thinking about what you’re doing with Matchbox Cinema Club [sic], is there a lot of… I mean, do you go for a lot of foreign language films or is that not what your main thrust is when you’re thinking of programming?  

Megan: So, our main, core programme is about films you can’t see anywhere else, so that’s predominantly archive and world cinema, so foreign language. We also have our tent pole, larger weekend festivals, that are a wee bit more mainstream films, but they’re all captioned as well. And, for us, a lot of that is that we’re able to produce those captions in-house but we’re also, you know, able to bring in people – you can see Con Air, maybe on Netflix, but you can’t see it, you know, captioned on the big screen elsewhere.  

Janice: Yeah. Just finally, what you were saying there, Pasquale, you were talking about a brilliant Indonesian action film.

Pasquale: Yeah.

Janice: That’s the thing, there’s such a richness out there and I’m as guilty as anybody else of not exploring, you know, the rest of the world’s cinema ’cause there’s so much else to catch up with and somebody like Mark Cousins always makes me feel guilty ’cause he plunges into it all the time, but there’s so much brilliant film-making going on, right around the globe. Yeah, and actually, talk about Mark Cousins, I mean, Moviedrome was a real formative moment for me in terms of film education, that great series back in the ’90s and with Mark Cousins and Alex Cox, but, yeah, I mean, just one look at Netflix, and I was just having a look at the international titles that they have and on their front page, the lead page is The Pianist, the Roman Polanski film.  

Janice: Yeah.  

Quad poster for The Guilty, close-up of head of sweating man wearing telephone headset, superimposed images of racing cars and gagged woman tied with ropes

Pasquale: But I was just looking at some others that they’ve got. They’ve got this terrific film called The Guilty, which is a film, a Danish film. One actor, just one actor in the film, so a bit like that film Locke, with Tom Hardy.  

Janice: Yeah.  

Pasquale: This is about an emergency police dispatcher who takes a call from a kidnapped woman. Very, very spare locations. Very, very suspenseful 90 minutes, less than 90 minutes and you’re done. And it’s a terrific film!  

Janice: I’m writing it down. Guilty. Thank you very much indeed. Do you know what? We’ve talked so much, I can only play a little bit of the final song now, but I thought that was fascinating. Thank you very much indeed, Pasquale Iannone and Megan Mitchell. Cheers.

Megan: Thank you.

Pasquale: Thank you.

Janice: And, Megan, yeah, Cage-a-rama 2020 taking place from the 3rd to 5th of January at the CCA in Glasgow, for all your Nicolas Cage needs, hosted by Megan and her team. Thank you very much indeed.


All of Matchbox Cineclub’s programmed is subtitled for the deaf and hard of hearing. Keep up to date with our events by signing up to our mailing list, here, or find our events on Facebook here. For more information on our subtitling service, read our dedicated page here.

Cage-a-rama 2020 takes place 3rd, 4th and 4th January 2020 at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow. Buy tickets here.

Cage-a-rama 2020 Guests + UK Tour

Black an white image: Nicolas Cage and stand-in Marco Kyris stand together, looking down - Cage holds tissue paper, Marco an empty tin can
Nicolas Cage and Marco Kyris on set

Matchbox Cineclub are pleased to announce Marco Kyris, Nicolas Cage’s official stand-in for over ten years, will attend our third annual Cage-a-rama film festival at Glasgow’s Centre for Contemporary Arts on 3rd, 4th & 5th January 2020 and afterwards embark on a UK-wide Cage-a-rama: Uncaged tour.

Marco, who worked with Cage on almost 20 films between 1994-2005, will join Lindsay Gibb, Toronto-based author of National Treasure: Nicolas Cage and world-leading Nicolas Cage expert, for an in-conversation event and a screening of Uncaged: A Stand-in Story at CCA Glasgow on Saturday 4th January. Kyris will also introduce several of Cage-a-rama 2020’s films across the festival weekend: Leaving Las Vegas (for which Cage won an Academy Award® for Best Actor), the first of the fan-favourite National Treasure films, and Martin Scorsese’s urban horror Bringing Out the Dead, the latter of which he will introduce alongside journalist Josh Slater-Williams (Sight & Sound, Little White Lies).

Kyris has also guest-programmed a special opening night screening of one of his favourite collaborations with Cage, Brian De Palma’s Snake Eyes, followed by a Q&A. Throughout the festival, Marco will be open to any questions about his “Cage Wage” years, and share genuine call-sheets and other Cage memorabilia from his archive – and might be persuaded to part with them if audience members pose good enough questions. Cage-a-rama’s opening night is sponsored by Drygate.

Directors Mike Figgis (Leaving Las Vegas) and Stephen Campanelli (Grand Isle) will introduce their films via specially recorded videos. Joining them are Nicolas Cage aficionados from across the globe, including Timon Singh of Bristol Bad Film Club, Torïo Garcia of the Spanish NicCagepedia, and Mike Manzi & Joey Lewandowski, the New Jersey-based hosts of the much-loved #CageClub: The Nicolas Cage Podcast.

Three images featuring Marco Kyris standing in for Nicolas Cage on film sets - The Rock, Face/Off and Con Air. (https://www.mkyris.com/)
Marco Kyris, on the sets of The Rock, Face/Off and Con Air

The subsequent Cage-a-rama 2020 UK Tour will feature a 35mm screening of Con Air at the Genesis Cinema in London on Thursday 9th January, and a 20th-anniversary screening of Gone in 60 Seconds in collaboration with Bristol Bad Film Club at Bristol Improv Theatre on Saturday 11th January. Both screenings will be accompanied by Marco Kyris’s short film, Uncaged: A Stand-In Story, and a post-screening Q&A.

Cage-a-rama 2020 highlights Cage’s relationship with directors: from big guns to young guns, from huge budgets to low ones, from his career’s early days to now. The festival features 10 films over three days, closing with the UK premiere of brand-new Nicolas Cage film Primal (2019), to be released by Lionsgate in February 2020. Sunday 5th January also sees the UK premiere of Grand Isle, which pairs Cage with Kelsey Grammer, set to be released by 101 Films. The rest of the programme features Cage classics from some of his earliest roles, in Francis Ford Coppola’s Peggy Sue Got Married and Top Gun “homage” Fire Birds, to blockbuster sequel National Treasure: Book of Secrets and a midnight screening of Zandalee, his erotic thriller co-starring Judge Reinhold.


Cage-a-rama 2020 Weekend and Day Passes and individual tickets are on sale via Matchbox Cineclub’s online shop. Tickets for Con Air in London are available via Genesis Cinema’s website (genesiscinema.co.uk) and tickets for Gone in 60 Seconds can be purchased via Bristol Improv Theatre (improvtheatre.co.uk).

For the first time, the entire Glasgow Cage-a-rama programme will be open-captioned for D/deaf audiences, and tickets for each film are priced on a sliding scale, £0-8, with reference to our three-tiered guide, so audience members decide what to pay.

Keep up-to-date via the Cage-a-rama 2020 Facebook event

Poster for Cage-a-rama 2020, feauring an illustration of Nicolas Cage climbing Glasgow Cathedral a la King Kong (https://veronavarro.com/)
Illustration by Vero Navarro

Gender expression in Rosa von Praunheim’s cult musical City of Lost Souls

Queer Classics’ Lydia Honeybone on queer kinship in 1980s Berlin counterculture

Growing up in the 1990s, some of my favourite films featured queer characters and, coming out as a teenager, they became my idols. I learnt about queer culture from the drag queens played by Guy Pearce, Hugo Weaving and Terence Stamp in The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (1994), Robin Williams in The Bird Cage (1996), and Ewan McGregor, Jonathan Rhys Meyers and Christian Bale in Velvet Goldmine (1998). But, surprisingly, these roles were all played by straight actors – not a single one of them openly identifies as queer.

I began this blog post thinking I’d write a critical text on issues raised by straight actors playing queer roles and, while I still believe there is a necessary conversation to be held about appropriation, and the need for affirmative action within casting, on re-watching City of Lost Souls (Stadt Der Verlorenen Seelen, Rosa von Praunheim, 1983), and looking back at queer/drag on-screen representation, another question arose: how have we arrived at this moment in cinematic history, where we ‘homonormatise’ our on-screen queers?

While it’s commendable that queer characters have moved from supporting roles to centre stage, from the gay sidekick BFF (see Rupert Everett in My Best Friend’s Wedding (1997)), to more fully realised characters (such as Simon in Love, Simon (2018)), these more prominent roles seem to have been made more palatable for a wider audience, a kind of glossing-over. It seems that in the process of moving centre stage, queer on-screen representation has had to be cleaned up and diluted for a wider audience.

Viewing City of Lost Souls, we soon discover there is no attempt to gloss-over or dilute queer experience. This is apparent in the choice of characters themselves, including Angie Stardust, a black trans lesbian woman and Tara O’Hara, a trans sex worker. Then there is Lila, played by Jayne Country, a trans actress/punk musician of the era. Arguably the campest and most fabulous character in the film – as well as the most confusing – I only realised she was playing a cis woman when the character becomes pregnant! City of Lost Souls intentionally fucks with you. It’s challenging, camp, and slapstick.

Between the cabaret numbers and outlandish punk performances, there are few moments that could be described as ‘tender’, but there is one that stands out. In this scene Angie Stardust and Tara O’Hara are getting ready for a night out, reminiscent of the Werk Room on RuPaul’s Drag Race, or the dressing rooms of Paris is Burning (1990), but during this moment, they discuss their gender identities and differing attitudes to gender across their respective generations.

Angie and Tara have a complex exchange about their own gender expressions. Angie is seeking gender-realignment surgery, and is adamant that, in the narrator’s words, she “won’t become an old man”. Tara, of a younger generation, self-identifies as “transvestite”, and “third sex”, not feeling the need for surgery. Identifying as a woman with the anatomy she was born with, Tara accuses Angie of being old-school in her mindset.

City of Lost Souls (Rosa von Praunheim, 1983)

Had she not been murdered in a homophobic attack in 1983, how would Tara O’Hara feel about her gender expression? Would she have found kinship in the ballrooms of 1990s New York, in Paris is Burning, and the legendary mother Pepper LaBejia of the House of LaBejia? Schooling the children, she famously said “having the vagina, that doesn’t mean that you’re gonna have a fabulous life”.

Angie is a fierce character throughout, bursting onto the screen in the opening song, telling the staff of the Hamburger Queen to stop messing around and get back to work. In her scene with Tara, this anger is channelled into educating her young prodigy on the struggles the trans community faced, ultimately allowing her to be free in her gender expression. This sensitive and nuanced exchange between these two very different women, is a rare gem of political debate in an otherwise brash, bombastic queer musical!

City of Lost Souls (Rosa von Praunheim, 1983)

The reason this otherwise inconsequential scene stands out for me, is a shocking indication of how little progress we, as queer people, have made when it comes to the wider recognition of gender diversity. I’m left questioning how queer culture has failed to make the gains we looked set to achieve in 1994, when we celebrated Terence Stamp’s portrait of Bernadette, a trans woman who performed ‘womanhood’ in her job as a drag queen in Priscilla, Queen of the Desert.

It is problematic to hold up RuPaul’s Drag Race as the benchmark by which we judge all representations of queerness on-screen, but with viewer numbers through the roof, 13 Emmys and a growing international fanbase, Mama Ru has reached audiences previously unimaginable to drag queens. For many people RuPaul’s Drag Race is queer culture. But, with their questionable stance on trans inclusivity and homogenised beauty standards, is Drag Race partly responsible for the ‘homonormativity’ we find across queer popular culture today? How have we strayed so far from the ’80s/’90s queer representation that was so gender fluid and wholly inclusive?

This is what makes revisiting City of Lost Souls so exciting and utterly pertinent. It is a chance to enter into an absurd world of queer kinship, where a trans woman plays the role of a woman assigned female at birth, a drag queen self identifies as “the third sex” and her best friend is a black, trans, lesbian who reigns over their household as a fierce matriarch. The rules of gender are broken and rebuilt in our viewing of this bizarre, queer extravaganza, about love, rejection, violence and self-expression.

City of Lost Souls never achieved the box-office success of Priscilla, or even the cult status of Paris is Burning, but it is an incredible reflection of the Berlin underground in the 1980s. Indeed, perhaps its relative obscurity allowed it to be so subversive.

Tangerine (Sean Baker, 2015)

Ultimately, I hope Hollywood casting directors will realise that they need to do better and start casting queer people in queer roles (like the brilliantly-cast Tangerine (2015)). Until then, maybe we will need to keep looking to the margins to find our contemporary queer idols.

Lydia Honeybone

Matchbox Cineclub and Queer Classics present City Of Lost Souls at Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow on Monday 18th November, as part of BFI Musicals! The Greatest Show on Screen, a UK-wide film season supported by National Lottery, BFI Film Audience Network and ICO. bfimusicals.co.uk

Tickets are priced on a sliding scale £0-8, and are available exclusively here.

Three of the Apocalypse

Reptilian aliens, shoegaze and the end of the world. Diet Soda Cineclub’s Teri Williams sets up our upcoming co-screening of Gregg Araki’s Teen Apocalypse Trilogy

Is Gregg Araki the patron saint of the alienated teen? His work, which now spans over three decades, has helmed a wave of new queer cinema that began with radical low budget films like The Living End and is now cutting through the abundant noise of shiny teen TV drama with the excellent Now Apocalypse, a hark to the trilogy that arguably started this whole beautiful mess: the Teen Apocalypse Trilogy. So pucker up, light up, and read on to find out more about how the godfather of rebellious youth framed a generation in neon rainbow colours that remains ever so relevant in this strange, doom-laden landscape we’re living in right now.

Totally Fucked Up, The Doom Generation and Nowhere were made and released in the mid-90s, when tie-dye and inflatable furniture was in, and Gen Z queer icons Amandla Stenberg, Chloe Grace Moretz and Hunter Schafer were mere twinkles in their parents’ eyes. It’s arguable to say that these three films, and Gregg’s subsequent features like Mysterious Skin and Kaboom! paved the way for a plethora of queer and teen-centric media today. He’s even had a guest director spot on a few episodes of 13 Reasons Why, one of the most talked about teen TV shows of recent times.

The Teen Apocalypse Trilogy was never seen as a critical success. Maybe because most of the film reviewers assessing them at the time were deliberately far removed from the worlds shown on screen – there’s nothing a middle-aged white man hates more than teen disenchantment, disengagement, disaffection. Not to mention all of that ambiguous sexuality, questions of gender identity and complete disregard for populist politics and society. Gregg’s films depict utter doom in the purest sense, where teens find themselves facing alienation and actual aliens, out to pull them free from the crazy world they’re struggling to fit into.

The first film in the trilogy, aptly titled Totally Fucked Up, stars Araki-darling James Duval, who we see throughout a large number of Gregg’s work. His inky black eyes, pouty mouth and Keanu-hair make him an instant pin up in the franchise, but what makes James stand out is his flat, carefree valleyboy accent, often used as narration, particularly in his starring role in Nowhere. He is part of a group of six young gay teenagers who have come together as a family of misfits. Largely filmed with a handheld video camera, the movie has a grainy, homemade quality to it reminiscent to the early work of the great John Waters, and as intimate as the talking head portions of modern reality TV.

The Doom Generation, which is a roadtrip movie, stars Rose McGowan and her iconic Mia Wallace haircut, hurtling through the desolate landscape of nighttime LA with boyfriend Jordan (James Duval) and new arrival X (Jonathon Schaech). Their blossoming triage-ship is wrought with jealousy, confusion, and terrifying encounters throughout the way,

The third film, Nowhere, showcases Gregg’s obsession with alienation in a comically literal sense. Its bisexual hero, again played by James Duval, is on a manic search for the alien race who is taking over his community and friends, stalking him as he navigates his failing relationship with girlfriend Mel and falling for new town arrival Montgomery.

So there you have it. Three films – a portrait movie, a roadtrip movie, and a sci-fi fantasy – each exploring themes of existential doom and teenage heartbreak that, each with their own rad, acidic soundtrack and palette of blindingly neon colours, paved the way for a multitude of queer cinema that celebrates the weird and subversive, an aloof middle finger to the mainstream. And maybe that’s what we need to celebrate right now.

Teri Williams


Gregg Araki’s Teen Apocalypse Trilogy screens at the CCA Glasgow as part of Scalamara Glasgow on Thursday 26th September, 2019. Buy tickets here.